Find Bill
Find Your Legislator
Legislative Deadlines
Sept. 15, 2018
RSS Feed Permanent URL -A +A

2017 Statute



Prev Article 23. - REVISED KANSAS JUVENILE JUSTICE CODENext


38-2361. Sentencing alternatives. (a) Upon adjudication as a juvenile offender pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2356, and amendments thereto, modification of sentence pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2367, and amendments thereto, or violation of a condition of sentence pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2368, and amendments thereto, the court may impose one or more of the following sentencing alternatives for a fixed period pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2369 and 38-2391, and amendments thereto.

(1) Place the juvenile on probation for a fixed period pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2391, and amendments thereto, subject to terms and conditions the court deems appropriate consistent with juvenile justice programs in the community. Any juvenile placed on probation shall be supervised according to the juvenile's risk and needs as determined by a risk and needs assessment. Placement of juvenile offenders to community corrections for probation supervision shall be limited to offenders adjudicated for an offense that are determined to be moderate-risk, high-risk or very high-risk on a risk and needs assessment using the cutoff scores established by the secretary pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2360, and amendments thereto.

(2) Order the juvenile to participate in a community based program available in such judicial district subject to the terms and conditions the court deems appropriate. This alternative shall not be ordered with the alternative in paragraph (11). Requirements pertaining to child support may apply if custody is vested with other than a parent.

(3) Place the juvenile in the custody of a parent or other suitable person, which is not a group home or other facility licensed pursuant to article 5 of chapter 65 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, subject to terms and conditions consistent with juvenile justice programs in the community. This alternative shall not be ordered with the alternative in paragraph (11). Requirements pertaining to child support may apply if custody is vested with other than a parent.

(4) Order the juvenile to attend counseling, educational, mediation or other sessions, or to undergo a drug evaluation pursuant to subsection (b).

(5) Suspend or restrict the juvenile's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle on the streets and highways of this state pursuant to subsection (c).

(6) Order the juvenile to perform charitable or community service work.

(7) Order the juvenile to make appropriate reparation or restitution pursuant to subsection (d).

(8) Order the juvenile to pay a fine not exceeding $1,000 pursuant to subsection (e).

(9) Place the juvenile under a house arrest program administered by the court pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-6609, and amendments thereto.

(10) Place the juvenile in the custody of the secretary of corrections as provided in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2365, and amendments thereto. This alternative shall not be ordered with the alternative in paragraph (3) or (12). Except for mandatory drug and alcohol evaluation, when this alternative is ordered with alternatives in paragraphs (2), (4) and (9), such orders shall constitute a recommendation by the court. Requirements pertaining to child support shall apply under this alternative. The provisions of this paragraph shall expire on January 1, 2018.

(11) Upon a violation of a condition of sentence, other than a technical violation pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2368, and amendments thereto, commit the juvenile to detention for a period no longer than 30 days subject to the provisions of subsection (g).

(12) If the judge finds and enters into the written record that the juvenile poses a significant risk of harm to another or damage to property, and the juvenile is otherwise eligible for commitment pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2369, and amendments thereto, commit the juvenile directly to the custody of the secretary of corrections for placement in a juvenile correctional facility or a youth residential facility. Placement in a youth residential facility shall only be permitted as authorized in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2369(e), and amendments thereto. If the court elects, a period of conditional release pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2369, and amendments thereto, may also be ordered. The period of conditional release shall be limited to a maximum of six months and shall be subject to graduated responses. Twenty-one days prior to the juvenile's release from a juvenile correctional facility, the secretary of corrections or designee shall notify the court of the juvenile's anticipated release date. This alternative may be ordered with the alternative in paragraph (7). Requirements pertaining to child support shall apply under this alternative.

(13) Upon a finding by the trier of fact during adjudication that a firearm was used in the commission of an offense by the accused which, if committed by an adult, would constitute a felony, a judge may commit the juvenile directly to the custody of the secretary of corrections for placement in a juvenile correctional facility or youth residential facility for a minimum term of six months and up to a maximum term of 18 months, regardless of the risk level of such juvenile as determined by a risk and needs assessment. If the juvenile is committed to the custody of the secretary, and the court elects, a period of conditional release, pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2369, and amendments thereto, may also be ordered. The period of conditional release shall be limited to a maximum of six months and shall be subject to graduated responses. Twenty-one days prior to the juvenile's release from a juvenile correctional facility or youth residential facility, the secretary of corrections or the secretary's designee shall notify the court of the juvenile's anticipated release date.

(b) If the court orders the juvenile to attend counseling, educational, mediation or other sessions, or to undergo a drug and alcohol evaluation pursuant to subsection (a)(4), the following provisions apply:

(1) The court may order the juvenile offender to participate in counseling or mediation sessions or a program of education, including placement in an alternative educational program approved by a local school board. The costs of any counseling or mediation may be assessed as expenses in the case. No mental health center shall charge a fee for court-ordered counseling greater than what the center would have charged the person receiving the counseling if the person had requested counseling on the person's own initiative. No mediator shall charge a fee for court-ordered mediation greater than what the mediator would have charged the person participating in the mediation if the person had requested mediation on the person's own initiative. Mediation may include the victim but shall not be mandatory for the victim; and

(2) if the juvenile has been adjudicated to be a juvenile by reason of a violation of a statute that makes such a requirement, the court shall order and, if adjudicated for any other offense, the court may order the juvenile to submit to and complete a drug and alcohol evaluation by a community-based drug and alcohol safety action program certified pursuant to K.S.A. 8-1008, and amendments thereto, and to pay a fee not to exceed the fee established by that statute for such evaluation. The court may waive the mandatory evaluation if the court finds that the juvenile completed a drug and alcohol evaluation, approved by the community-based alcohol and drug safety action program, within 12 months before sentencing. If the evaluation occurred more than 12 months before sentencing, the court shall order the juvenile to resubmit to and complete the evaluation and program as provided herein. If the court finds that the juvenile and those legally liable for the juvenile's support are indigent, the court may waive the fee. In no event shall the fee be assessed against the secretary of corrections or the department of corrections nor shall the fee be assessed against the secretary of the department for children and families or the Kansas department for children and families if the juvenile is in the secretary's care, custody and control.

(c) If the court orders suspension or restriction of a juvenile offender's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle on the streets and highways of this state pursuant to subsection (a)(5), the following provisions apply:

(1) The duration of the suspension ordered by the court shall be for a definite time period to be determined by the court. Upon suspension of a license pursuant to this subsection, the court shall require the juvenile offender to surrender the license to the court. The court shall transmit the license to the division of motor vehicles of the department of revenue, to be retained until the period of suspension expires. At that time, the licensee may apply to the division for return of the license. If the license has expired, the juvenile offender may apply for a new license, which shall be issued promptly upon payment of the proper fee and satisfaction of other conditions established by law for obtaining a license unless another suspension or revocation of the juvenile offender's privilege to operate a motor vehicle is in effect. As used in this subsection, "highway" and "street" have the meanings provided by K.S.A. 8-1424 and 8-1473, and amendments thereto. Any juvenile offender who does not have a driver's license may have driving privileges revoked. No Kansas driver's license shall be issued to a juvenile offender whose driving privileges have been revoked pursuant to this section for a definite time period to be determined by the court; and

(2) in lieu of suspending a juvenile offender's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle on the highways of this state, the court may enter an order which places conditions on the juvenile offender's privilege of operating a motor vehicle on the streets and highways of this state, a certified copy of which the juvenile offender shall be required to carry any time the juvenile offender is operating a motor vehicle on the streets and highways of this state. The order shall prescribe a definite time period for the conditions imposed. Upon entering an order restricting a juvenile offender's license, the court shall require the juvenile offender to surrender such juvenile offender's license to the court. The court shall transmit the license to the division of vehicles, together with a copy of the order. Upon receipt thereof, the division of vehicles shall issue without charge a driver's license which shall indicate on its face that conditions have been imposed on the juvenile offender's privilege of operating a motor vehicle and that a certified copy of the order imposing the conditions is required to be carried by the juvenile offender when operating a motor vehicle on the streets and highways of this state. If the juvenile offender is a nonresident, the court shall cause a copy of the order to be transmitted to the division and the division shall forward a copy of it to the motor vehicle administrator of the juvenile offender's state of issuance. The court shall furnish to any juvenile offender whose driver's license has had conditions imposed on it under this section a copy of the order, which shall be recognized as a valid Kansas driver's license until the division issues the restricted license provided for in this subsection. Upon expiration of the period of time for which conditions are imposed pursuant to this subsection, the juvenile offender may apply to the division for the return of the license previously surrendered by the juvenile offender. In the event the license has expired, the juvenile offender may apply to the division for a new license, which shall be issued immediately by the division upon payment of the proper fee and satisfaction of the other conditions established by law unless such juvenile offender's privilege to operate a motor vehicle on the streets and highways of this state has been suspended or revoked prior thereto. If any juvenile offender violates any of the conditions imposed under this subsection, the juvenile offender's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle on the streets and highways of this state shall be revoked for a period as determined by the court in which the juvenile offender is convicted of violating such conditions.

(d) The following provisions apply to the court's determination of whether to order reparation or restitution pursuant to subsection (a)(7):

(1) The court shall order the juvenile to make reparation or restitution to the aggrieved party for the damage or loss caused by the juvenile offender's offense unless it finds compelling circumstances that would render a plan of reparation or restitution unworkable. If the court finds compelling circumstances that would render a plan of reparation or restitution unworkable, the court shall enter such findings with particularity on the record. In lieu of reparation or restitution, the court may order the juvenile to perform charitable or social service for organizations performing services for the community; and

(2) restitution may include, but shall not be limited to, the amount of damage or loss caused by the juvenile's offense. Restitution may be made by payment of an amount fixed by the court or by working for the parties sustaining loss in the manner ordered by the court. An order of monetary restitution shall be a judgment against the juvenile that may be collected by the court by garnishment or other execution as on judgments in civil cases. Such judgment shall not be affected by the termination of the court's jurisdiction over the juvenile offender.

(e) If the court imposes a fine pursuant to subsection (a)(8), the following provisions apply:

(1) The amount of the fine may not exceed $1,000 for each offense. The amount of the fine should be related to the seriousness of the offense and the juvenile's ability to pay. Payment of a fine may be required in a lump sum or installments;

(2) in determining whether to impose a fine and the amount to be imposed, the court shall consider that imposition of a fine is most appropriate in cases where the juvenile has derived pecuniary gain from the offense and that imposition of a restitution order is preferable to imposition of a fine; and

(3) any fine imposed by [the] court shall be a judgment against the juvenile that may be collected by the court by garnishment or other execution as on judgments in civil cases. Such judgment shall not be affected by the termination of the court's jurisdiction over the juvenile.

(f) Before the court sentences a juvenile offender pursuant to subsection (a), the court shall administer a risk assessment tool, as described in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2360, and amendments thereto, or review a risk assessment tool that was administered within the past six months to the juvenile and use the results of that assessment to inform orders made pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2369 and 38-2391, and amendments thereto.

(g) If the court commits the juvenile to detention pursuant to subsection (a)(11), the following provisions shall apply:

(1) The court shall only order commitment to detention upon violation of sentencing conditions where all other alternatives have been exhausted.

(2) In order to commit a juvenile to detention upon violation of sentencing conditions, the court shall find that the juvenile poses a significant risk of harm to another or damage to property, is charged with a new felony offense, or violates conditional release.

(3) The court shall not order commitment to detention upon adjudication as a juvenile offender pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2356, and amendments thereto, for solely technical violations of probation, contempt, a violation of a valid court order, to protect from self-harm or due to any state or county failure to find adequate alternatives.

(4) Cumulative detention use shall be limited to a maximum of 45 days over the course of a juvenile offender's case pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2391, and amendments thereto. The court shall review any detention commitment every seven days and may shorten the initial commitment or extend the commitment. In no case, however, may the term of detention or any extension thereof exceed the cumulative detention limit of 45 days or the overall case length limit.

(5) A juvenile over 18 years of age and less than 23 years of age at sentencing shall be committed to a county jail, in lieu of a juvenile detention center, under the same time restrictions imposed by paragraph (1), but shall not be committed to or confined in a juvenile detention facility.

(h) Any order issued by the judge pursuant to this section shall be in effect immediately upon entry into the court's minutes.

(i) In addition to the requirements of K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2373, and amendments thereto, if a person is under 18 years of age and convicted of a felony or adjudicated as a juvenile offender for an offense if committed by an adult would constitute the commission of a felony, the court shall forward a signed copy of the journal entry to the secretary of corrections within 30 days of final disposition.

(j) Except as further provided, if a juvenile has been adjudged to be a juvenile offender for an offense which, if committed by an adult would constitute the commission of: (1) Aggravated human trafficking, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5426(b), and amendments thereto, if the victim is less than 14 years of age; (2) rape, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5503(a)(3), and amendments thereto; (3) aggravated indecent liberties with a child, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5506(b)(3), and amendments thereto; (4) aggravated criminal sodomy, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5504(b)(1) or (b)(2), and amendments thereto; (5) commercial sexual exploitation of a child, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-6422, and amendments thereto, if the victim is less than 14 years of age; (6) sexual exploitation of a child, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5510(a)(1) or (a)(4), and amendments thereto, if the victim is less than 14 years of age; or (7) an attempt, conspiracy or criminal solicitation, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5301, 21-5302 or 21-5303, and amendments thereto, of an offense defined in paragraphs (1) through (6); the court shall issue an order prohibiting the juvenile from attending the attendance center that the victim of the offense attends. If only one attendance center exists, for which the victim and juvenile are eligible to attend, in the school district where the victim and the juvenile reside, the court shall hear testimony and take evidence from the victim, the juvenile, their families and a representative of the school district as to why the juvenile should or should not be allowed to remain at the attendance center attended by the victim. After such hearing, the court may issue an order prohibiting the juvenile from attending the attendance center that the victim of the offense attends.

(k) The court may order a short-term alternative placement of a juvenile pursuant to subsection (a)(3) in an emergency shelter, therapeutic foster home or community integration program if:

(1) Such juvenile has been adjudicated to be a juvenile offender for an offense which, if committed by an adult would constitute the commission of:

(A) Aggravated human trafficking, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5426(b), and amendments thereto, if the victim is less than 14 years of age;

(B) rape, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5503, and amendments thereto;

(C) commercial sexual exploitation of a child, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-6422, and amendments thereto, if the victim is less than 14 years of age;

(D) sexual exploitation of a child, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5510(a)(1) or (a)(4), and amendments thereto, if the victim is less than 14 years of age;

(E) aggravated indecent liberties with a child, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5506, and amendments thereto, if the victim is less than 14 years of age; or

(F) an attempt, conspiracy or criminal solicitation, as defined in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 21-5301, 21-5302 or 21-5303, and amendments thereto, of an offense defined in paragraphs (1) through (4); and

(2) (A) the victim resides in the same home as the juvenile offender;

(B) a community supervision officer in consultation with the department for children and families determines that an adequate safety plan, which shall include the physical and psychological well-being of the victim, cannot be developed to keep the juvenile in the same home; and

(C) there are no relevant child in need of care issues that would permit a case to be filed under the Kansas code for care of children.

The presumptive term of commitment shall not extend beyond the overall case length limit but may be modified pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2367 and 38-2397, and amendments thereto. If a child is placed outside the child's home at the dispositional hearing pursuant to this subsection and no reintegration plan is made a part of the record of the hearing, a written reintegration plan shall be prepared pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2397, and amendments thereto, and submitted to the court within 15 days of the initial order of the court.

(l) The sentencing hearing shall be open to the public as provided in K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 38-2353, and amendments thereto.

(m) The overall case length limit shall be calculated by the court and entered into the written record when one or more of the sentencing options under this section are imposed. The period fixed by the court pursuant to subsection (a) shall not extend beyond the overall case length limit.

History: L. 2006, ch. 169, § 61; L. 2010, ch. 11, § 9; L. 2010, ch. 155, § 15; L. 2011, ch. 30, § 168; L. 2013, ch. 120, § 38; L. 2014, ch. 115, § 74; L. 2015, ch. 32, § 1; L. 2016, ch. 46, § 42; L. 2017, ch. 90, § 6; July 1.

Revisor's Note:

Section was also amended by L. 2010, ch. 75, § 20, and L. 2010, ch. 122, § 6, but those versions were repealed by L. 2010, ch. 155, § 26.

CAUTION: Section was amended effective July 1, 2017, see L. 2016, ch. 46, § 42.



Prev Article 23. - REVISED KANSAS JUVENILE JUSTICE CODENext
2018. Powered by KLISS. Rendered: 2018-09-15T20:38:15. Head Rev No: 557549(E)